Dissertation abstract

Formatting of scientific work provides for the presence of annotations to it. Abstract for the dissertation should have a certain structure and be issued in several languages ​​– native language and foreign (in most cases – English).

The dissertation abstract is a brief review – a press release. This review will allow the user quickly become familiar with the essence of the work (its content, purpose, method of solution).

So that it will be perceived not only by specialists of this industry, but also by a simple student who can use scientific developments for further improvement. But do not forget that this is a part of scientific work and free retreats will be, at least, not relevant.

In addition to the fact-finding, the next important goal of the dissertation abstract  is to interest the potential reader with the issues being studied. After all, the work gives not only scientific, but also practical significance.

The purpose and structure of dissertation abstract

The volume of abstract, which describes the topic of the dissertation and the results of the research, is not established by the regulatory documentation. 2 spellings are allowed: short (up to 1 sheet) and extended (5–6 sheets). Regardless of the size, the abstract consists of 2 blocks: the title (the full name of the author of the dissertation is indicated; the degree to which the applicant is applying; the topic of study, etc.) and the text itself.

The approximate structure, according to which it is necessary to write an abstract, should contain:

1. Relevance of the topic. The attention is focused on the problema, the dissertation is devoted to the solution of which. Provides links to scientific work in this area. It describes problem or unresolved issues that are addressed in the dissertation. The importance and necessity of the conducted research is substantiated.

2. The object of the dissertation research. In this block it is necessary to highlight the process of consideration and description of the process that creates certain obstacles. Overcoming them is studied by the author of the thesis.

3. Subject. It is a part of an object that can contain many items. It is an important, from a practical and scientific point of view, feature or property of the object under study.

4. Purpose and objectives. The goal will be the result, to achieve which, the applicant solves a set of problems. Under which refers to activities that contribute to the achievement of the goal, such as study, analysis, development. The goal can be both theoretical (the study of characteristics, patterns of phenomena, their development, etc.), and practical value (improvement, optimization, efficiency increase, etc.).

In addition to these, welcome coverage of such moments as the novelty of the dissertation research, the significance of the research, etc.

APA format term paper

APA format term paper primary requirements

Any student sooner or later have to engage in writing a term paper. This project is created on a clear structure, which, as a rule, is negotiated in advance with the teacher. But many students do not know how to fill out a list of references in term paper. Although this unit in the research project must be present necessarily – it shows which sources were cited in it. Archival materials and works that were viewed and studied in the process of researching the topic are also indicated here.

Features of the APA format term paper of the bibliographic apparatus

It should be borne in mind that the list of used literature can be made out in different ways. Options may be:

  • systematic;
  • by types of documents;
  • alphabetic;
  • chronological;
  • by sections and chapters (that is, as they are used).

In most cases, the student places the material in this block at his own discretion. It would not be superfluous to coordinate this issue with the teacher. After all, the curator will be able to clearly explain the rules that are adopted in the school. The bibliographic list should be drawn up very carefully, since most of the teachers pay particular attention to this block of scientific work.

Do not forget that the term paper, or rather, that part of it that is represented by the list of used literature, is represented by special requirements. They are made in GOST. Why is the bibliographic apparatus so important? This part of the term paper is very significant because it allows:

  • assess the depth of research topics;
  • determine the ethics of the provisions presented;
  • make a valuable reference to sources used that are relevant to the research topic.

APA format term paper

Each of the types of references for term paper has its own characteristics. For example, an alphabetical list makes it possible to withstand the strict location of sources. Focusing on the alphabet and headings, make a bibliography. In this case, you can build on the names of the sources or on the names of their authors.

How to make out a list of references in term paper, is easy to understand. However, the work turns out to be very laborious and quite complex, it takes a lot of time. To save it, it is recommended to seek the help of professionals. Our authors with ease, competently and quickly perform the entire term paper, based on specific requirements, correctly make a list of references.

Also, a list of references is often required to arrange the type of documents. The order in this case will be as follows:

  • books and monographs;
  • science articles;
  • official documents;
  • standards.

The inner part of each block is made strictly alphabetically.

How to end a research paper?

The final section of the research paper, as a rule, is started when the central part of the work is written, all the planned studies have been carried out and the goals have been achieved. After such a colossal work has been done, the student may experience some confusion due to the fact that he does not know what exactly to write in the conclusion and how to arrange this section. In this article we will try to explain in detail what constitutes a research paper, and what rules should be followed when writing it. You have to know how to end a research paper.

So, how to end a research paper?

In the final section of any scientific work summarize the study. It briefly describes the results, their compliance with the goals set, the author also draws his own conclusions, forecasts for studying the issue, expresses his opinion on the relevance of the problem, etc.

Since the size of the final part of the research paper is quite small compared to the other sections (it should not exceed 2-3 printed pages), before you begin to write it, you must clearly understand which conclusions should be marked there and in what sequence .

Conclusion of the research paper should begin with the theses given in the introduction. It goes without saying that copying text from the first pages and embedding it in conclusion would be a fatal mistake that could lead to your defense failing. However, you can take the idea as a basis, and correctly rephrase it. This will not be considered a mistake, because before drawing conclusions, it would be logical to remind the reader about what goals were set at the beginning of work, what methods were planned to be used and what studies to conduct. Therefore, retell in other words the basic idea of ​​the introduction and then proceed to the conclusions and results of the work done.

Conclusions in the final part

If you correctly formed the central part of your project, then each section and subsection already contains intermediate results of your research. Now you can use these findings in a slightly modified form to write a course report, where you summarize all the work.

The results of each of the subsections are united by a single logical thought, and by this means you will practically complete the writing of this section.

How to write a research paper?

Research paper is the student’s independent work experience. This problem is relevant for high school students. The study of the algorithm for writing work is not only an interesting and cognitive process, but also a work that allows you to determine the possibility of creativity in writing and design. In the course of studying this question, it will become clear that the design of the research paper cannot be derogated from the generally accepted rules, and creativity is welcomed within reasonable limits, in the case of the first writing experience. Also work on this topic allows you to learn how to use additional literature and systematize the chosen material. Therefore, you have to know how to write a research paper.

Research paper must demonstrate:

  • sufficient theoretical knowledge on a specific topic;
  • ability to work with scientific, educational and reference literature;
  • student ownership of research skills;
  • ability to generalize and systematize the material on the chosen topic;
  • ability to formulate a scientific apparatus of work;
  • the ability to logically and competently present the material.

Research Paper Requirements

  1. The chosen topic should be problematic (have ambiguous interpretations in the literature, which is not sufficiently developed in practice, cause certain difficulties in practical management, etc.).
  2. Material must be selected according to the topic.
  3. The available points of view on this problem are indicated and briefly analyzed.
  4. The student must reasonably support any point of view, or present his position based on an analysis of existing points of view.
  5. Work must have logic in the presentation of the material, interview the scientific style.

Here are some tips how to write a research paper:

  1. Stick to the theme of your work, so you will have more chances for a creative approach.
  2. Remember, your scientific work should be based only on reliable and reliable materials that will support your arguments.
  3. In order to avoid mistakes, read your work out loud several times or let you check it with a friend.
  4. You can also read your work not from the beginning, but from the end, i.e. read sentences in reverse order to notice errors. If you have already honored your work several times from beginning to end, then your eyes could get used to the words; therefore, reading the work from the end to the beginning, you can notice still unnoticed errors.

How to start a research paper?

The title “introduction” indicates the role of this section for the research paper. It serves to bring the reader up to date, to form his first impression of work. Often teachers are limited to reading the introduction and conclusion, so these sections should be carefully worked out.

Elements of the introduction are the same for any scientific work – paper, degree or dissertation. Since the research paper is less ambitious, according to the decision of the department or the teacher accepting the work, some items of the course introduction plan can be excluded. You have to know how to start a research paper. We indicate what needs to be written in the introduction:

  1. Relevance of the topic. This item is required for all coursework. It usually takes up more space than any other part of the introduction.
  2. Purpose of the work.
  3. Tasks of work.
  4. The object of study.
  5. The subject of study.
  6. The scientific methods used in the work.
  7. Review of literary sources.
  8. The degree of elaboration of the problem, scientific novelty and practical significance in term papers are most often omitted, because this type of work is of a more academic nature. These sections are added for design research only. It is difficult to find a scientific novelty in the performance of engineering calculations for a manual or for applying to the enterprise a widely known method of economic analysis.

The above list is a standard set of what is written so you know how to start a research paper. The teacher can add specific items.

Tips, how to start a research paper

Despite the fact that the introduction is the first in the order element of the research paper, you can write it after the main part. This will simplify the formulation of many points – there will already be clarity with the work plan (the tasks will be formulated easily), with the methods used (it will be enough to list them), with the sources used (you can mention those that had the greatest impact on the text).

The query of how to make the introduction of lookup paper, has an unequivocal answer: the same as the lookup paper itself. If the most important phase is printed in 14 font with 1.5 spacing, the equal settings are applied in the introduction. The only nuance of the introduction of the research paper is whether it is quintessential to single out the key phrases of the structural factors (“relevance”, “object”, “subject”). Most frequently this is now not required, the introduction textual content is written in stable textual content with a single design.